2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Chronic pain in the lower back triggered from the sacroiliac (SI) joint occurs in 15% to 30% of patients with low back pain. The causes of SI joint pain include degenerative sacroiliitis, osteoarthritis, SI joint disruptions from trauma or pregnancy, problems after lumbar spinal fixation techniques, anatomical abnormalities such as scoliosis, infection, gout, tumour or idiopathic causes.
2.2 Conservative treatments for SI joint pain include analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, manipulative therapy, intra-articular SI joint corticosteroid injections, periarticular injections, botulinum toxin injections and radiofrequency denervation. Surgical treatment is considered for persistent chronic symptoms that are unresponsive to conservative treatment. Surgical techniques include open SI joint fusion surgery or minimally invasive SI joint fusion using percutaneous implants to stabilise the joint and treat joint pain.