2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Biventricular heart failure results from structural or functional abnormalities of the heart. It leads to reduced blood flow to body tissues and oedema in the lungs (causing breathlessness) and the periphery (causing swelling of the legs). Other symptoms include reduced exercise tolerance, fatigue and malaise.
2.2 Medical treatment of heart failure involves drugs, such as diuretics and inotropic agents, to improve heart function. Invasive therapies, such as electrophysiological interventions, coronary revascularisation, valve replacement or repair, may also be used for patients with end-stage refractory biventricular heart failure. When these therapies no longer work, left ventricular or biventricular assist devices or heart transplantation may be considered.