Recommendations for research
The guideline committee has made the following recommendations for research based on its review of evidence, to improve NICE guidance and patient care in the future. The Guideline Development Group's full set of research recommendations is detailed in the full guideline.
A national evaluation of early pregnancy assessment unit service provision should be carried out to identify factors affecting outcomes. Factors should include whether care is provided in a dedicated unit, staffing configuration and opening hours of dedicated services. Outcomes should include both process (service) outcomes and pregnancy-related outcomes. Data collected should be used to analyse the cost effectiveness of early pregnancy assessment units compared with other models of care.
The first report of an early pregnancy assessment unit in England was published over 20 years ago, and prompted the rapid development of centres for the management of problems in early pregnancy. Today there are an estimated 150 early pregnancy assessment units in England and Wales (Association of Early Pregnancy Units, 2012). However, there is considerable variation between centres in access to services and levels of care provided. In addition, there has been very little good quality research on the effectiveness of early pregnancy assessment units in improving physical and emotional health compared with services provided outside of a dedicated unit.
A national audit of early pregnancy assessment services would help to make up for this lack of information. Such an audit should be along the lines of the National Caesarean Section Sentinel Audit, a cross-sectional national survey of service configuration and outcomes. Data recorded would include service location, opening hours and the healthcare professionals involved. Outcomes would include time of attendance, length of stay, admission rates, time to treatment and women's experience. Obtaining some of this information would involve early pregnancy services carrying out more formal follow‑up of women than they might do currently, for the duration of the audit. The evaluation should be structured to allow for comparisons between different models of care.
Comparative outcome data collected would be used to conduct an analysis of the cost effectiveness of early pregnancy assessment units compared with other models of care.
How does the timing and frequency of ultrasound examination affect diagnosis and outcomes of early pregnancy complications, including women's experience and cost effectiveness?
The rationale behind the frequency of ultrasound to improve diagnosis and outcomes of early pregnancy complications addresses the problems associated with pregnancy of unknown location and intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. The evidence base for the timing and frequency of scanning in early pregnancy is limited, and the number of scans is organised by individual units according to capacity and demand. Some healthcare professionals choose to wait 5 days between scans whereas others will wait 10 to 14 days. These decisions are driven by resource availability as well as clinical considerations, but in particular, the effect of different strategies on cost and women's experience is not clear. The literature suggests that there is no clear consensus, but there is general agreement that by 14 days a diagnosis will be clear. To establish the most appropriate time for scans, the efficacy of scans taken after 14 days could be compared with scans taken after 7 days for diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy or viability.
Are progesterone or progestogens effective in treating threatened miscarriage?
Approximately 20% of pregnancies miscarry in the first trimester and many women will experience some bleeding and/or pain in early pregnancy that does not cause miscarriage. In many countries, women with bleeding and/or pain will be treated with progesterone or progestogens to try and decrease the risk of miscarriage. The evidence for the effectiveness of this treatment has been inconclusive, but data from a meta-analysis of several small studies suggest that progestogens are better than placebo. However, there are theoretical risks to prescribing any treatment in pregnancy and for many practitioners this will be a major change in practice. The lack of strong evidence makes this a priority area for research.
A very large multicentre randomised controlled trial of women receiving treatment with either progesterone/progestogen or placebo should be conducted. The trial should be large enough to be sufficiently powered to detect differences in long-term outcomes. The population would be women with pain and bleeding and a spontaneous, confirmed, viable, singleton, intrauterine pregnancy between 6 and 12 weeks' gestation. Progesterone/progestogen or placebo would be administered from when bleeding starts until the end of the 13th week. Pregnancy proceeding beyond the end of the first trimester might be the primary outcome. Live birth should also be measured, as well as pregnancy outcome, gestation at birth and presence of congenital abnormalities.
In women with confirmed miscarriage, does the type of management strategy (expectant, medical and surgical) impact on women's experience, including psychological and emotional outcomes?
The management of miscarriage in the UK has changed in many ways over the past 2 decades, particularly in the shift from inpatient to outpatient or day case care and the introduction of medical and expectant management as alternatives to surgery.
Despite these changes there is a lack of research into the effects of these different approaches from the woman's perspective, in particular their psychological and emotional impact. Miscarriage is distressing for most women, and the type of management itself might affect women's need for counselling, with a resulting cost to the NHS. Because of this it is an important area for research.
The deficiency in the literature could be addressed by a comparative study of women having the different management strategies (expectant, medical or surgical) and in a variety of clinical settings (for example, early pregnancy assessment unit, gynaecological ward or gynaecological emergency unit). The data collected could be both quantitative (using validated psychological health questionnaires) and qualitative (focusing particularly on women's experience of the particular type and setting of care).
In women with ectopic pregnancy, does the type of intervention impact on women's experience, including psychological and emotional outcomes?
Currently there is no evidence exploring the psychological impact of the different treatments for ectopic pregnancy. However, the emotional impact of the condition can be significant, in some circumstances leading to post-traumatic stress disorder. A qualitative comparative study should be carried out to assess how this impact can be reduced. This would help to maximise women's emotional recovery in the short and long term, enable women and clinicians to decide the optimum treatment method and identify what support is needed for women during and after the process. It could also reduce the cost to the NHS of providing long-term counselling for affected women.