March 2021: We have reviewed the evidence and made new recommendations on the benefits and risks of caesarean birth compared with vaginal birth, methods to reduce infectious morbidity, methods for uterine closure, methods to prevent and treat hypothermia and shivering, monitoring after caesarean birth and pain relief. These recommendations are marked .
We have also made some changes without an evidence review:
We have updated some wording to bring the language and style up to date, without changing the meaning.
We have updated some recommendations to bring them in line with current terminology and practice.
We have combined, clarified or reworded some recommendations to make them clearer and to improve ease of reading.
These recommendations are marked [2011, amended 2021] and [2004, amended 2021].
Recommendations marked  and  last had an evidence review in 2011 and 2004, respectively. In some cases minor changes have been made to the wording to bring the language and style up to date, without changing the meaning.
Minor changes since publication
July 2021: Recommendation 1.4.29 is being updated. We removed reference to the Joel–Cohen transverse incision to clarify what should be done in the meantime. See the exceptional surveillance review on surgical opening technique for more information.