Recommendations for research

The guideline committee has made the following recommendations for research.

Key recommendations for research

1 Health effects of e-cigarettes

What are the short- and long-term health effects of e-cigarette use? Are there any specific health effects relating to use in pregnancy, or use by children and young people? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on advice on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in:

2 Nicotine replacement therapy and e-cigarettes and pregnancy

Are nicotine replacement therapy or nicotine-containing e-cigarettes effective to help women stop smoking in pregnancy (and at what dose)? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and other pharmacological support.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review J: nicotine replacement therapies and e-cigarettes in pregnancy: update.

3 Stop-smoking interventions for under-served groups

How can effective and cost-effective interventions to support people to stop smoking be modified to improve engagement with and accessibility for under-served groups? How acceptable are these interventions to these groups? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on commissioning and designing services.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review K: cessation and harm-reduction treatments.

4 Support for people with mental health conditions to stop smoking

How can people with mental health conditions be supported effectively to stop smoking (at individual and system level)? What are the challenges and opportunities and how can they be addressed? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on stop-smoking support in mental health services.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review O: tailored interventions for those with mental health conditions.

5 E-cigarettes and pregnancy

What are the views and concerns of:

  • pregnant women who smoke

  • the healthcare professionals who care for them

about the use of nicotine-containing e‑cigarettes during pregnancy? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on nicotine replacement therapy and other pharmacological support.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review J: nicotine replacement therapies and e-cigarettes in pregnancy: update.

Other recommendations for research

6 E-cigarettes for harm reduction

Are nicotine-containing e‑cigarettes effective and safe for harm reduction when used alongside tobacco products to cut down on smoking (dual-use approach)? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes for harm reduction.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review K: cessation and harm-reduction treatments.

7 Use of e-cigarettes (amount and frequency)

Does the effectiveness of nicotine-containing e‑cigarettes as an aid to stopping smoking vary according to the amount of nicotine they contain or the frequency of use? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on advice on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review K: cessation and harm-reduction treatments.

8 E-cigarette flavours

Do the flavours used in nicotine-containing e‑cigarettes have an impact on their effectiveness as an aid to stopping smoking, and are there any adverse effects associated with them? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on advice on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review K: cessation and harm-reduction treatments.

9 E-cigarettes and established future smoking

Is e‑cigarette use in children, young people and young adults who do not smoke associated with future established smoking? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on adult-led interventions in schools.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review F and G: e-cigarettes and young people.

10 Factors that may influence the use of nicotine replacement therapy and e-cigarettes

Which factors may prevent people who currently smoke tobacco from using other forms of nicotine such as NRT and nicotine-containing e‑cigarettes? Does this vary according to population group, particularly among under-served groups? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on using stop-smoking interventions.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review L: barriers and facilitators to using e-cigarettes for cessation or harm reduction.

11 Relapse prevention

Are NRT or nicotine-containing e‑cigarettes effective for preventing relapse after a successful quit attempt? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on supporting people trying to stop smoking.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review N: smoking relapse prevention.

12 Relapse prevention after enforced, temporary quit

How can people who have recently stopped or temporarily abstained from smoking in a smokefree inpatient or treatment environment be best supported after discharge to prevent relapse or to stop permanently? [2021]

For a short explanation of why the committee made the recommendation for research, see the rationale section on supporting people trying to stop smoking.

Full details of the evidence and the committee's discussion are in evidence review N: smoking relapse prevention.

13 Carbon monoxide monitoring

What is the validity of different thresholds of carbon monoxide in exhaled breath as markers of quitting, based on diagnostic review and modelling? [2018]

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)