The guideline committee has made the following recommendations for research. The committee's full set of recommendations for research is detailed in the full guideline.
1 Symptoms and signs of urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 5 years and above but under 16 years
What are the symptoms and signs of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children and young people aged 5 years and above but under 16 years? 
A well designed cohort study investigating long-term outcomes including renal scarring and renal function of children who have had UTI should be conducted in the UK. 
Urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in young children have been shown to be associated with both congenital and acquired renal damage. Progressive scarring is well documented in children with high grade VUR and recurrent UTI. Scarring has been associated with severe hypertension, proteinuria, complications in pregnancy and progression to established renal failure. These risks are likely to be greater in children with bilateral renal parenchymal defects. However, the frequency and magnitude of these risks for children with unilateral and bilateral renal damage are unclear. Knowledge of the risk of serious or progressive complications would be useful to determine the management of children with first‑time and recurrent UTIs.
Do the symptoms and signs of UTI in babies, children and young people aged under 16 years differ in those with a history of recurrent UTIs compared with those without a history of recurrent UTI? 
What symptoms and signs do children and young people with long-term (chronic) UTI report and what do they perceive is the impact on their health and quality of life?