The guideline committee has made the following recommendations for research.
The committee recommends that the following research questions should be addressed. See also the recommendations for research in NICE's guideline on vitamin D: increasing supplement use in specific population groups. It notes that 'effectiveness' in this context relates not only to the size of the effect, but also to cost effectiveness and duration of effect. It also takes into account any harmful or negative side effects.
All the research should aim to identify differences in effectiveness among groups, based on characteristics such as socioeconomic status, age, gender and ethnicity.
1. How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for different populations be quantified? What factors should be included in tailored messages for people with different characteristics and levels of exposure to the sun, including skin colour, age, occupation and lifestyle?
2. What are the most effective ways of conveying complex risk messages and influencing behaviours in relation to over‑ and underexposure to sunlight? In particular, what are the most effective ways of using social and digital media? Consideration should be given to the following: how does effectiveness vary according to communicator, message, audience and medium? How does this vary at individual, group and population level in the UK? How does this vary for black and minority ethnic groups in the UK?
3. What are the most effective methods of identifying and targeting individuals and groups at risk of either over‑ or underexposure to sunlight?
4. What combinations of interventions are most effective at helping people to reduce their risks of, and benefit from, sunlight exposure? How much does this vary according to the type of intervention for example, the communicator, message, audience and medium?