Recommendations for research
What is the incidence, presentation and management of sepsis in the United Kingdom? 
The lack of robust UK based epidemiological studies on the incidence and outcomes from sepsis have been clear throughout the guideline development process. A large epidemiological study to collect information about where sepsis is being treated, patient interventions and patient outcomes would provide population based statistics on epidemiology of sepsis which are necessary to support evaluation of interventions, planning of services and service redesign. The mortality and morbidity and service complexity associated with severe infection and sepsis, and the need to use broad-spectrum antimicrobials to treat sepsis, justifies the cost required to set up such a study.
2 Association between NEWS2 bands (0, 1 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 or above) and risk of severe illness or death
In adults and young people (16 and over) with suspected sepsis in acute hospital settings, ambulance trusts and acute mental health facilities, what is the association between NEWS2 bands (0, 1 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 or above) and risk of severe illness or death? In adults and young people (16 and over) with suspected sepsis in acute hospital settings, ambulance trusts and acute mental health facilities, what is the association between the NEWS2 score of 3 in a single parameter and risk of severe illness or death? 
The NEWS2 has been introduced in 2017 and is widely used across the NHS pre-hospital and acute care settings. However, evidence on the NEWS2 was not found. It is important to investigate, over a 5- to 10‑year period, the success, safety and possible implications on people with suspected sepsis and clinical staff of using the NEWS2 to stratify the risk of severe illness or death from sepsis.
Lack of data to stratify risk of severe illness or death from sepsis and estimate possible risk of deterioration in people with a single parameter contributing 3 points to their NEWS2 score is also of great concern. Data relating to this is scarce and its interpretation contradictory.
Is it possible to derive and validate a set of clinical decision rules or a predictive tool to rule out sepsis which can be applied to patients presenting to hospital with suspected sepsis? 
In primary care and emergency departments people with suspected sepsis are often seen by relatively inexperienced doctors. Many of these people will be in low and medium risk groups but evidence is lacking as to who can be sent home safely and who needs intravenous or oral antibiotics. The consequences of getting the decision making wrong can be catastrophic and therefore many patients are potentially over-investigated and admitted inappropriately. Current guidance is dependent on use of individual variables informed by low quality evidence.