Recommendations for research

Recommendations for research

PHIAC recommends that the following research questions should be addressed in order to the improve the evidence relating to finding, supporting and retaining those most at risk of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other smoking-related diseases and improving their access to services. It notes that 'effectiveness' in this context relates not only to the size of the effect, but also to the cost effectiveness, duration of effect and harmful/negative effects.

1. Can the research on proactive case-finding and retention and access to services in relation to smoking cessation and the provision of statins be applied to other services aimed at the reduction of premature mortality amongst disadvantaged people? If so, to what extent?

2. What factors influence the acceptability and effectiveness of incentives to identify, engage and retain people within the health system? Does the use of incentives lead to any adverse consequences? If so, why and under what circumstances?

3. Do cost-effective, small-scale interventions remain cost effective when they are expanded? If so, what is the best way to expand them?

4. To what extent, if any, does the level and nature of disadvantage of the target population affect the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of interventions?

5. How does service uptake change when different barriers to service use are addressed either individually or in combination?

More detail on the evidence gaps identified during the development of this guidance is provided in appendix D.