Infants and children presenting with unexplained fever of 38°C or higher have a urine sample tested within 24 hours. See statement 1 of NICE quality standard 36 on urinary tract infection in infants, children and young people under 16 for the quality measures, what the quality statement means, source guidance and definitions.
It is important that a urinary tract infection is considered as a possible cause of feverish illness in infants and children under 5 years. When an infant or child (under 5 years) with a temperature of 38°C or higher is taken to a healthcare professional, and there is no obvious source of infection, a urine sample should be tested within 24 hours to ensure prompt diagnosis and antibiotic treatment if needed. An infant under 3 months should be admitted to hospital if they present with fever (as outlined in the traffic light system) and the urine sample should be tested in the hospital. A child over 3 months may be cared for at home, depending on other symptoms, in which case the urine sample should be tested in primary care.