Canagliflozin (Invokana, Janssen), dapagliflozin (Forxiga, AstraZeneca) and empagliflozin (Jardiance, Boehringer Ingelheim and Lilly UK) are all selective sodium‑glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT‑2) inhibitors, which block the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys and promote excretion of excess glucose in the urine. Through this mechanism these drugs may help control glycaemia independently of insulin pathways. They all have UK marketing authorisations for treating type 2 diabetes to improve glycaemic control in adults:
as monotherapy: when diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in people for whom the use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance or contraindications
as add‑on combination therapy: with other glucose–lowering medicinal products including insulin, when these, together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycaemic control.