6 Implications for the NHS

6.1 As this guidance recommends the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) only in certain restricted circumstances, it is not anticipated that the guidance will increase the use of ECT in England and Wales above current levels. As ECT appears to be of similar cost to alternative treatments, it is unlikely that a change in the use of ECT will result in an increase or decrease in NHS expenditure. However, there will undoubtedly be costs associated with addressing the continuing deficiencies in the standards of care that have been highlighted (see section 3.3).