3 The technology

3.1 Dual‑chamber pacemakers have pacing leads in the right atrium and ventricle. They are indicated for use in the treatment of atrioventricular block in the absence of continuous atrial fibrillation, and in sick sinus syndrome with atrioventricular block.

3.2 The unpublished draft report of the UKPACE cost utility analysis provided information on the aggregate acquisition (discounted) cost of pacemakers. The cost of pacemakers varied according to the type of device (see Appendix D for an explanation of pacemaker nomenclature): VVI £690, VVIR £1099, DDD £1365 and DDDR £2017, all excluding VAT. Atrial leads were £175 and ventricular leads were £172, excluding VAT.

3.3 The Association of British Healthcare Industries (ABHI) has advised that the average market (discounted) price of dual‑chamber pacemakers is between £1265 (for DDD) and £1713 (for DDDR), excluding VAT, compared with between £658 (for VVI) and £935 (for VVIR) for single‑chamber pacemakers (See Appendix D for definitions of device types). The average price of leads is £169, excluding VAT. The Institute believes that these market prices represent a substantial discount on the list prices of these devices (which have not been provided to the Institute), and these prices may change over time because of environmental factors.