The NICE glossary provides brief definitions and explanations of terms used on the website. The terms describe how NICE works and how its guidance is produced.
Our glossary excludes specific clinical and medical terms. If you cannot find the term you are looking for, please email us so that we can consider adding it to the glossary.
Some definitions and examples are based on those in the HTAi consumer and patient glossary, with thanks to Health Technology Assessment International.
For terms used in social care, the Care and Support Jargon Buster from Think Local Act Personal is a useful guide to the most commonly used social care words and phrases, and what they mean.
The set of measurements at the beginning of a study (after any initial 'run-in' period with no intervention), with which subsequent results are compared.
An approach in which dependent variables are measured before and after an intervention has been delivered. Often called a pre–post study. The people in the pre- and post-intervention stages can either be the same or different.
A way to prevent researchers, doctors and patients in a clinical trial from knowing which study group each patient is in so they cannot influence the results. The best way to do this is by sorting patients into study groups randomly. The purpose of 'blinding' or 'masking' is to protect against bias.
In a single-blind study, patients do not know which study group they are in (for example whether they are taking the experimental drug or a placebo). In a double-blind study, neither the patients nor the researchers/doctors know which study group the patients are in. In a triple-blind study, the patients, clinicians and the people carrying out the statistical analysis do not know which treatment patients had.