Referencing and citations

Most NICE products don't have reference lists – use hyperlinks for web-based sources, or footnotes if there isn't a web version.

In documents that do have a reference list, follow the examples in this section.

Don't edit the titles of papers.

Don't put a full stop at the end of the reference.

Reference examples: journals and books

Journal article

Alfredson H and Cook J (2007) A treatment algorithm for managing Achilles tendinopathy: new treatment options. British Journal of Sports Medicine 41(4): 211–6

Layton A, Moss F, Morgan G (1998) Mapping out the patient's journey: experiences of developing pathways of care. Quality in Health Care 7 (Suppl. 2): S30–6

Tillon C, Cole AF, Shah RD et al. (2015) Outcome of surgery for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a critical review. American Journal of Sports Medicine 29(3) (forthcoming)

Conference abstract (in a journal)

Anand R, Hartmann R, Gharabawi G (1997) Worldwide clinical experience with Exelon, a new generation cholinesterase inhibitor, in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. European Journal of Neurology 4 (Suppl. 1): S37 (Abstract)

Books, reports

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2008) Annual survey report 2008: absence management. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

Department for Work and Pensions (2007) Ready for work: full employment in our generation. London: The Stationery Office

Chapter or article from a book or report with editors

McCrea C (1999) Good clinical audit requires teamwork. In: Baker R, Hearnshaw H, Robertson N, editors. Implementing change with clinical audit. Chichester: Wiley, p119–32

Marmot M, Wilkinson R, editors (2006) Social determinants of health. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Reference examples: others

Acts

HM Government (1995) The Disability Discrimination Act

Cochrane review

Gagnon AJ (2000) Individual antenatal education for childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews issue 4: CD00287

Conference abstract (in conference proceedings)

Li TW, Jones PA (2006) Methylation changes in early embryonic genes in cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 97th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, 1–5 April 2006, Washington DC, USA. Philadelphia: AACR; p7. Abstract 30

Conference poster

Rockwood K, Kershaw P (2000) Galantamine's clinical benefits are not offset by sleep disturbance: a 3‑month placebo-controlled study in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Poster presented at the 7th International World Alzheimer Congress, 1–3 March 2000, Washington DC, USA

Court case

A and others v the National Blood Authority and others (2001) EWHC QB 446

Rottman v MPC (2002) HRLR 32

Health Technology Assessment

Daniels J, Gray J, Pattison H et al. (2009) Rapid testing for group B streptococcus during labour: a test accuracy study with evaluation of acceptability and cost‑effectiveness. Health Technology Assessment 13 (42)

Newspaper citation

Timmins N (2009) NHS managers' skill levels criticised by MPs. The Financial Times, 13 January, p2

Speeches

Foreign and Commonwealth Office (2013) The future of Europe in the global economy. Speech given by the Right Honourable David Lidington MP, Minister of State for Europe, to the Lord Mayor's Gala Dinner at the Great Hall, Guildhall on 23 May 2013. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office

Websites

Department of Health NHS reference costs 2013–14 [online; accessed 2 November 2015]

Citations

When citing in the text and not hyperlinking (in documents that have a reference list), use the Harvard style of referencing (author date).

Direct and indirect citation:

  • Harrison (2012) argues that there are 7 main principles.

  • There are 7 main principles that need to be considered (Harrison 2012).

Two authors:

  • Percy and Wright (2006) show how health inequalities vary between populations.

  • Health inequalities are known to vary between populations (Percy and Wright 2006).

More than 2 authors:

  • This effect has been reported in the community (Emson, Smith et al. 2009).

  • Emson et al. (2009) were the first to report this effect in the community.

If citing more than 1 paper, order them alphabetically based on the first author's surname:

  • There are 3 specific areas of organisational development (Davies and Franks 2008, Green 2006, Johnston et al. 2007, 2009).

If citing more than 1 paper by the same author with the same publication date, letter in the order that they appear in the text and mirror this in the reference list:

  • (Brown et al. 2007a, 2007b).

Don't include papers that have been submitted but not yet accepted for publication in reference lists. But you can cite them in the text. For example: (Peters CD, Franks JL: unpublished data 2007) or (Johnston EG: personal communication 2008). If you want to cite a personal communication you'll need to get written permission from the person being quoted.

When citing NICE publications, hyperlink the title to the product overview page and be specific about the type of guidance. Don't use capital letters in the title:

You don't always need to use the full title. If we only have 1 piece of guidance on a topic, it's fine to be more concise. For instance, our guideline on headaches in over 12s: diagnosis and management is the only guidance we have on headaches in this age group. So, we would say:

But remember not to use too many links; just enough to make it easy for the reader to navigate. See also hyperlinks.