The NICE glossary provides brief definitions and explanations of terms used on the website. The terms describe how NICE works and how its guidance is produced.
Our glossary excludes specific clinical and medical terms. If you cannot find the term you are looking for, please email us so that we can consider adding it to the glossary.
Some definitions and examples are based on those in the HTAi consumer and patient glossary, with thanks to Health Technology Assessment International.
For terms used in social care, the Care and Support Jargon Buster from Think Local Act Personal is a useful guide to the most commonly used social care words and phrases, and what they mean.
Assigning people in a research study to different groups without taking any similarities or differences between them into account. For example, it could involve using a random numbers table or a computer-generated random sequence. It means that each individual (or each group in the case of cluster randomisation) has the same chance of having each intervention.
A study in which a number of similar people are randomly assigned to 2 (or more) groups to test a specific drug, treatment or other intervention. One group (the experimental group) has the intervention being tested, the other (the comparison or control group) has an alternative intervention, a dummy intervention (placebo) or no intervention at all. The groups are followed up to see how effective the experimental intervention was. Outcomes are measured at specific times and any difference in response between the groups is assessed statistically. This method is also used to reduce bias.
The probability of an event occurring in the study group compared with the probability of the same event occurring in the control group, described as a ratio. If both groups face the same level of risk, the relative risk is 1. If the first group had a relative risk of 2, subjects in that group would be twice as likely to have the event happen. A relative risk of less than 1 means the outcome is less likely in the first group. Relative risk is sometimes referred to as risk ratio. It will be very similar to the odds ratio when events are rare.
A subcommittee of NICE's Board that sets the salaries and terms of service for senior staff.
Recommendations for future research covering questions relating to an uncertainty or lack of evidence that has been identified while developing NICE guidance.
Examples of residential and day care settings include:
Tobacco organisations (for example, tobacco companies, those who speak for them or are funded by them) with an interest in a particular topic. The term ‘respondent’ acknowledges NICE’s commitment to Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This sets out an obligation to protect the development of public health policy from any vested interests of the tobacco industry.
The date at which NICE plans to start seeing if guidance needs to be updated. If this check finds a large amount of new evidence has been produced since the original guidance, NICE may propose that all or part of the guidance is updated.
Any aspect of a person's lifestyle, environment or pre-existing health condition that may increase their risk of developing a specific disease or condition.
A subcommittee of NICE's board that advises staff on identifying risks to the organisation and how to reduce them. Its work includes making sure NICE follows legislation on issues such as health and safety and data protection, and advising on preventing errors in published guidance.