The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on Implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner for managing type 2 diabetes, in March 2015.
Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance with or without inadequate pancreatic insulin secretion. It is most commonly seen in people with obesity or who are overweight. Presenting symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, and fatigue. Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with raised blood pressure, abnormal blood lipid levels and a tendency to atherosclerosis. This combination is often described as the ‘metabolic syndrome’, which is associated with fatty liver and abdominal adiposity (increased waist circumference).
Type 2 diabetes is managed by lifestyle and dietary changes, exercise or antidiabetic drugs (as recommended in NICE’s guideline on type 2 diabetes). If blood glucose levels remain poorly controlled, subcutaneous insulin injections may be needed.
This guidance represents the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take this guidance fully into account. However, the guidance does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the guidance, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.