3 The technologies

3 The technologies

Ranibizumab

3.1 Ranibizumab (Lucentis, Novartis) is a humanised therapeutic antibody fragment that binds to VEGF-A isoforms of VEGF thereby preventing binding of VEGF-A to receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2.

3.2 Ranibizumab has a UK marketing authorisation for the treatment of neovascular (wet) AMD. It is administered through intravitreal injection at a recommended dose of 0.5 mg. Treatment is started with a loading phase of one injection per month for 3 consecutive months, followed by a maintenance phase in which patients are monitored monthly for visual acuity. If the patient experiences a loss of greater than five letters in visual acuity (on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] chart or one Snellen line equivalent) during this maintenance phase, a further dose of ranibizumab should be administered. The interval between two doses should not be shorter than 1 month.

3.3 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that adverse events commonly associated with ranibizumab include conjunctival haemorrhage, eye pain, vitreous floaters, retinal haemorrhage, increased intraocular pressure, vitreous detachment, intraocular inflammation, eye irritation, cataract, foreign body sensation in the eyes, visual disturbance, blepharitis, subretinal fibrosis, ocular hyperaemia, blurred/decreased visual acuity, dry eye and vitreitis. For full details of side effects and contraindications, see the SPC.

3.4 The cost of a ranibizumab injection is £761.20 (excluding VAT; British national formulary [BNF] 54th edition). The 2-year cost of ranibizumab is about £10,700 assuming 8 injections in the first year and 6 injections in the second year, and about £18,300 assuming 12 injections in the first year and another 12 in the second year as per clinical trial regimen. Costs may vary in different settings because of negotiated procurement discounts.

Pegaptanib

3.5 Pegaptanib (Macugen, Pfizer) is a pegylated modified oligonucleotide that binds to VEGF-165 and inhibits its activity.

3.6 Pegaptanib has a UK marketing authorisation for the treatment of neovascular (wet) AMD. It is administered at 0.3 mg once every 6 weeks (9 injections per year) by intravitreal injection into the affected eye.

3.7 The SPC states that adverse events commonly associated with pegaptanib are anterior chamber inflammation, eye pain, increased intraocular pressure, punctate keratitis, vitreous floaters and vitreous opacities. For full details of side effects and contraindications, see the SPC.

3.8 The cost of pegaptanib is £514.00 per injection (excluding VAT; BNF 52nd edition). The 2-year cost of pegaptanib is about £9,300 (9 injections in the first year and another 9 in the second year). Costs may vary in different settings because of negotiated procurement discounts.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)