Appendix D Gaps in the evidence

Appendix D Gaps in the evidence

The Programme Development Group (PDG) identified a number of gaps in the evidence related to the programmes under examination based on an assessment of the evidence. These gaps are set out below.

  1. There is a lack of UK evidence on whether or not interventions to increase walking or cycling for transport or leisure result in a decrease or increase in participation in other types of physical activity. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different community settings.

  2. There is a lack of evidence on whether people who cycle or walk for recreational purposes, eventually adopt it as a form of transport.

  3. There is a lack of evidence on the long-term health, social and environmental impact of short-term interventions to increase walking or cycling. Specifically, there is a lack of evidence on the impact of interventions to encourage walking, cycling or both, for a range of groups within different community settings.

  4. There is a lack of evidence on whether it is effective and cost effective to support physically active travel as a segment of a longer journey. Specifically, it is not clear whether such support increases walking or cycling levels and, if it does, how this impacts on the environment.

  5. There is a lack of UK evidence on whether differences in urban and rural settings and environments impact on the implementation and effectiveness of interventions to increase walking or cycling. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different community settings.

  6. There is a lack of evidence on the barriers to, and facilitators for, inter-sector and inter-agency collaboration to promote walking and cycling. Evidence is also needed on the interventions that could overcome any identified barriers. Barriers may include the working cultures of different professionals.

  7. There is a lack of UK evidence on how effective and cost effective it is to address walking and cycling together or separately. Specifically, there is a lack of evidence on how combining interventions impacts on their effectiveness – and whether multiple interventions have a positive, synergistic effect. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different community settings.

  8. There is a lack of evidence on how people can be helped to make walking or cycling an habitual activity. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different community settings.

  9. There is a lack of UK evidence on the extent to which the provision of a free bus service impacts on walking levels. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different community settings.

  10. There is a lack of UK evidence on the impact that an individual's perception of distance has on their view of how viable cycling or walking is as a mode of transport. There is also a lack of evidence on what interventions can effectively change someone's perception of distance as a barrier to walking and cycling. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different community settings.

  11. There is a lack of UK evidence on the social constructs which act as barriers to, and facilitators for, the uptake of walking or cycling as a mode of transport. Evidence is needed for a range of groups within different communities.

The Group made 5 recommendations for research into areas that it believes will be a priority for developing future guidance. These are listed in section 5.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)