The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on balloon angioplasty of pulmonary vein stenosis in infants.

As part of the NICE's work programme, the current guidance was considered for review but did not meet the review criteria as set out in the IP process guide. The guidance below therefore remains current.


This procedure is used to treat pulmonary vein stenosis.

Pulmonary vein stenosis (narrowing) may be congenital, or acquired following surgery to correct other congenital cardiac anomalies. It is rare. Untreated, it leads to severe lung damage. It is often associated with other cardiac abnormalities.

Balloon angioplasty of pulmonary vein stenosis, sometimes combined with stenting, is a palliative treatment of children with a very poor prognosis, or sometimes a temporary measure for children awaiting further interventions.

The procedure involves dilatation of the narrowing using a balloon, during a transarterial cardiac catheterisation procedure. A stent may be inserted following dilatation to maintain patency. There is no reliable alternative treatment.

Coding and clinical classification codes for this guidance.