Recommendations for research

The guideline committee has made the following recommendations for research. The committee's full set of research recommendations is detailed in the full guideline.

1 Predictive accuracy of the WPPSI-IV at age 4 years (uncorrected) for children born preterm

What is the accuracy of a Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence 4th Edition (WPPSI-IV) assessment at age 4 years (uncorrected) for predicting later educational difficulties in children of primary school age who were born before 28+0 weeks' gestation?

Why this is important

Children born before 28+0 weeks' gestation are at increased risk of learning disability (intellectual disability), which may have an adverse impact on their learning and achievement at school, but may not be apparent at the 2-year developmental assessment. Determining the predictive accuracy of a WPPSI-IV assessment is key to providing parents or carers with accurate information about their child's likely development, so that educational support can be provided in order to reduce the risk of long-term learning disability (intellectual disability).

2 Predictive accuracy of the PARCA-R for children born preterm

What is the accuracy of the parent-completed Parent Report of Children's Abilities – Revised (PARCA-R) questionnaire carried out at age 2 years (corrected) for predicting learning disability (intellectual disability), language impairment and special educational needs at age 4 years (uncorrected) for children born preterm?

Why this is important

Parent-completed questionnaires such as the PARCA-R are used to identify children at risk of developmental problems and disorders. Although the PARCA-R has good diagnostic accuracy for identifying children at risk of concurrent developmental problems at age 2 years (corrected), its accuracy for predicting later risk of learning disability (intellectual disability), language impairment and learning difficulties is not known. Improved identification and provision of interventions are expected to lead to improved developmental outcomes for children born preterm.

3 Predictive accuracy of the ASQ-3 for children born preterm

What is the concurrent and predictive accuracy of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ-3) for detecting concurrent learning disability (intellectual disability) and motor impairment between the ages of 2 years (corrected) and 4 years (uncorrected) in children born preterm?

Why this is important

The ASQ is widely used to identify children at risk of developmental problems and disorders, and there are many versions of the questionnaire that span the preschool years. If the ASQ-3 was found to have sufficient concurrent and predictive accuracy for detecting learning disability (intellectual disability) and motor impairment between the ages of 2 years (corrected) and 4 years (uncorrected), this developmental check could be considered for use in enhanced developmental surveillance.

4 Accuracy of the SDQ for predicting social, attentional, emotional and behavioural problems in children born before 28+0 weeks' gestation

What is the accuracy of the parent-completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for predicting social, attentional, emotional and behavioural problems in children born before 28+0 weeks' gestation?

Why this is important

Social, attentional, emotional and behavioural problems in children born preterm may go unnoticed, yet can have an adverse impact on a child's health and wellbeing, quality of life and school performance, as well as on their family. Identifying children at risk of these problems will enable intervention and family support to be provided in order to reduce their impact. In particular, identifying problems before school entry will support education planning and promote social and emotional development and attainment at school.

5 Impact of enhanced developmental support and surveillance for children born preterm on parents and carers

Does enhanced developmental support and surveillance improve outcomes for the parents and carers of children born preterm?

Why this is important

Enhanced developmental support and surveillance up to 4 years (uncorrected age) for children born preterm who fulfil the necessary criteria is expected to increase the detection of developmental problems and disorders and improve outcomes for these children. However, the acceptability of this approach to parents, carers and families also needs to be taken into consideration. A study that looks at the impact of enhanced developmental support and surveillance on parents and carers (for outcomes such as experience of services, satisfaction and anxiety) may help to identify where improvements can be made to future support and surveillance.

ISBN: 978-1-4731-2626-8

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)