Close contacts

The people in close contact with someone infected with hepatitis B or C, where there is a risk of transmitting the infection (through blood or body fluids). This could include their family members, close friends, household contacts or sexual partners.

Continuity of care

Continuation of treatment and referral for people moving in, out or between prisons.

Household contacts

People sharing a bedroom, kitchen, bathroom or sitting room with a person infected with hepatitis B or C.

Immigration removal centres

In addition to housing people who remain in the UK illegally, immigration removal centres house people who are waiting for their immigration claims to be resolved or to have their identities established. Detainees are entitled to primary healthcare facilities during their stay, equivalent to those available in the community.

In-reach model

A model of prison-based healthcare provision in which healthcare services are brought into the prison, instead of the prisoner being taken out to the healthcare service (for example, to a hospital outpatient unit).

Joint strategic needs assessment

A process that identifies the current and future health and wellbeing needs of a local population, leading to agreed commissioning priorities that aim to improve outcomes and reduce health inequalities.

Locally enhanced services

Additional services provided by GPs, designed to meet specific local health needs.

Medical hold

A process to ensure prisoners are not transferred until they are medically fit.

Past infection

Hepatitis B and C can be cleared by the body's own immune system. An antibody test determines whether a person has ever been infected with hepatitis in the past. If the test is positive further tests are carried out to establish whether the virus is still present in the body.


Peers are members of the target population who have been diagnosed with hepatitis B or C. They may be recruited and supported to communicate health messages, including promoting testing and treatment, assist with contact tracing or testing, and to offer people support during testing and treatment.


Her Majesty's prison establishments, including young offender institutions.

Sexual contact

Intimate contact with others, including kissing and oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse. Hepatitis B is transmitted by direct contact with infected blood. However, it can also be transmitted by contact with semen, vaginal fluids and other body fluids. Hepatitis C is primarily transmitted by contact with infected blood.