Process and methods

Appendix C Examples of evidence tables

Appendix C Examples of evidence tables

Evidence Tables

C1: Example of an evidence table for intervention studies

Title: (review question)

C1: Example of an evidence table for intervention studies

[1] Bibliographic reference: author(s), year, article title, journal, volume, pages.

[2] Study type: for example, randomised controlled trial, cohort or case–control studies.

[3] Number of patients: total number of patients included in the study, including number of patients in each arm, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Also record the numbers of patients who started and completed the study.

[4] Patient characteristics: characteristics relevant to the area of interest: age, sex, ethnic origin, comorbidity, disease status, community- or hospital-based.

[5] Intervention: treatment, procedure or test studied. If important for the study, specify duration of treatment. For diagnostic studies the intervention is the diagnostic test plus associated treatment studied.

[6] Comparison: placebo or alternative treatment. For diagnostic studies, comparison of the test is with another test and treatment strategy.

[7] Length of follow-up: the length of time that patients take part in the study for, from first staging treatment until either a pre‑specified end point (for example, death, specified length of disease-free remission) or the end of the data-gathering phase is reached. If the study is stopped earlier than originally planned for any reason, this should be noted here.

[8] Outcome measures: list all outcome measures defined in the review protocol, including associated harms. For studies with a diagnostic component there will be 2 interventions to consider – the diagnostic test used and the associated treatment. Use a separate line for each outcome.

Effect size: for example, raw data from the study that allow analyses such as absolute risk reduction and relative risk (reduction), number needed to treat, number needed to harm, odds ratios, as required. Give confidence intervals whenever possible.

[9] Source of funding: government funding (for example, NHS), voluntary/charity (for example, Wellcome Trust), pharmaceutical company; and the role of funding organisations.

[10] Additional comments: additional characteristics and/or interpretations of the studies that the reviewer wishes to record. These might include important flaws in the study not identifiable from other data in the table, and additional questions or issues that will need to be considered but do not figure in the results tables in the study.


C2: Example of an evidence table for qualitative studies

Title: (review question)

C2: Example of an evidence table for qualitative studies

[1] Bibliographic reference: author(s), year, article title, journal, volume, pages.

[2] Research question: what was/were the research question(s)?

[3] Theoretical approach: what theoretical approach (for example, grounded theory, interpretive phenomenological analysis) does the study take (if specified)?

[4] Data collection: how were the data collected? Give details of:

method(s)

by whom

setting(s)

when.

[5] Method and process of analysis: what methods were used to analyse the data (for example, constant comparative method)?

[6] Population and sample collection: what population was the sample recruited from? Include the following information:

how they were recruited (for example, specify the type of purposive sampling)

how many participants were recruited

specific exclusion criteria

specific inclusion criteria.

[7] Key themes: list all relevant to this review (with illustrative quotes if available).

[8] Source of funding: government funding (for example, NHS), voluntary/charity (for example, Wellcome Trust), pharmaceutical company; and the role of funding organisations.

[9] Limitations: both those identified by the author(s) and those identified by the reviewer.

[10] Evidence gap and/or recommendations for future research.