Corporate document
Appendix 3 – Reporting information for selected analytical methods
Appendix 3 – Reporting information for selected analytical methods
Method 
Description 
Reporting information 

Direct or indirect standardisation 
Methods to increase comparability of exposure groups in terms of selected covariates 

Stratification 
Dividing the data into subsets, or strata for analysis 

Matching 
Matching individuals with the same or similar characteristics 

Propensity score (general) 
Estimate of probability of receiving a particular intervention; range of methods available (below) 

Propensity score (stratification) 
Patients grouped into strata (for example, deciles) based on propensity score and stratumspecific effects aggregated 

Propensity score (weighting) 
Weights attached to individuals based on inverse of propensity scores 

Propensity score (matching) 
Matches individuals with similar propensity scores 

Multivariable regression adjustment (includes using propensity scores) 
Statistical models comparing outcomes as a function of the intervention and covariates 

Instrumental variable analysis 
Exploits external variation in exposure across people or over time using an 'instrument'. An instrumental variable is associated with the intervention but is otherwise unrelated to the outcome. 

Interrupted time series 
Individuals or groups are used as their own controls and observed over multiple time points. Effects are observed by comparing outcome trends in the time period before and after intervention. 
